In search of my Irish McCreary-Magee-McGee Codd/Code/Coad Ancestors  in Lanark County, Ontario, Canada

(Not all Codds who came to Canada between 1816 and 1823 stayed in Lanark County or Kitley Township in Leeds. Many of the next generation went to Western Ontario - particularly to Bruce and Huron Counties. See some of them HERE.)


This page is my best shot at "conjectural genealogy."

Please consider it a "trial balloon" rather than a source of substantiated connections among the persons who appear on it.

If you have information to share which adds to, contradicts or expands the family trees which appear here, send it to me and I will factor it in. The  details of the CODD family of Aghold Parish have been elusive for years and here I hope to break the log jam - with your help.

This is not the traditional record-culling approach to genealogy. but whenever a "critical mass" of information has been accumulated by those who cull records - it is possible to conjecture connections  which wouldn't have appeared before.

Rather than apologizing for making such leaps, I am thanking those who have provided the information which makes this possible.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 



The CODDs of Aghold Parish in Wicklow (revised May 2012)

LINKS ARE PROVIDED  TO SEVERAL SOURCE DOCUMENTS. ACCESS THEM BY CLICKING ON BLUE UNDERLINED WORDS.

  To return to the MAIN PAGE at any time CLICK HERE.


CODD Family Background

The CODD family of Aghold Parish, Wicklow (and beyond) sent many family members to Canada (and perhaps elsewhere) - between 1816 and 1823 mainly - with dribbles of emigration afterwards. Most family members did not retain the CODD spelling - and became CODEs and COADs. Some of the latter have become confused with the COAD families from England - but most CODEs in Canada and the United States are likely to be descendants of this wave of emigration from Ireland - by a family who was on the winning side of the Rebellion of 1798 - but who found themselves infected with the hope of a new life in a new land. In North America, they often became community leaders, Members of Parliament, pioneers of the formation of new communities.

Perhaps this was because both in Ireland and before they came to Ireland with Strongbow (Richard de Clare) in 1170,  the Anglo-Norman Flemish Codds had been "landed gentry." These families remained clustered with the other Anglo-Norman families in the Bargy and Forth region of County Wexford. About 1725 one family of Codds, originally Roman Catholics, who had converted to Protestantism, JAMES CODD (1705-1763), whether married at the time or single, moved  to Wicklow County - establishing the CODD family at Boley Townland and later at Croneleagh or Crownalay Townland (Aghold Parish) now spelled Cronelea - and at Munahullen Townland (many alternative spellings have emerged Mullahullen, Mungacullin, Monaghullen etc.) near Shillelagh.

In Wicklow (which was a part of County Carlow when they arrived) they were simple tenant farmers and craftsmen who helped found St. Michael's Church of Ireland. By 1817 many of the family had committed themselves to emigrate. Others remained, some joining a second migration to Canada around 1850, while others are still found in the area, and remain adherents of St. Michael's Church of Ireland at Aghold.

Irish Records of Births, Marriages and Deaths for Aghold and nearby Parishes

The difficulty in locating Codd records and those families with whom they intermarried is compounded by the fact that the families were sufficiently distributed that their records appear in the Registers of at least  six Churches of Ireland, all of which are only a few miles apart - but which exist in different Counties. Tullow and St. Fiaac's of Clonegal are in County Carlow, St. Mary's Church at Bunclody is in Wexford County, while Carnew, Shillelagh and St. Michael's Church at Coolkenna are in Wicklow County. Yet emigrants to Canada more often than not indicated only the County where they lived.

























Records have been transcribed (copied by hand) from each of the six areas of interest at various times by visiting family members, with some finding names  which others failed to locate, and the matter being complicated by the apparent destruction of the earlier Carnew records during the Rebellion, and the lack of records for St. Michael's in the period between the late 1780's and about 1804. These records are said by some researchers (Eileen Jackson) to reside in Tullow. We also see, in the existent records, births, deaths and marriages of persons who lived in one area, but recorded in another.

Current State of Genealogy Records for the Areas of Interest

While records can be obtained from a central registry (The Church of Ireland Representative Church Body Library) in Dublin, most researchers have attempted to expand their base by local searches. Two sources, admittedly incomplete, which can be searched online include records transcribed by Halpenny family members, records gathered by a Codd family member in Wicklow, and records transcribed by Annette Code in 2006 during a visit to Ireland ( Aghold, Bunclody (Newtownbarry), Shillelagh births and marriages, Shillelagh deaths, Carnew, St. Fiaac's  deaths and baptisms). The Church of Ireland records from Tullow were, for a long time missing from this list - but had been viewed by Codd researchers such as Eileen Jackson in the past - abd are now available. From time to time additional Codds turn up in the Latter Day Saints (LDS) library files. But more recently, as will be seen below, actual church records have appeared online.

While other records, like the Tithe Allotment Records for 1814-25 have been surveyed, as well as the Griffith's Evaluations of the mid-19th century, and the land leases for the area in 1808 and again in the 1830s, the search for additional information has not yielded significant new data until the discovery of the Nauvoo Baptismal File of 1843. In this file, Joseph Codd (by then Coad) and now a member of the Mormon Church, submitted a list of 49 deceased family members for posthumous baptism by the Mormon Church. The list (below) submitted by Joseph Codd/Coad indicated the relationship he bore to each of 49 persons, most or all of whom lived in the area served by St. Michael's Church, Aghold Parish - in the village of Coolkenna. By comparing these names and their relationships to the less-than-complete information from the above sources, a clearer picture has emerged of the Codd family of Aghold. My writing is not the last word on the Codds of Aghold and Carnew. As new information has emerged, I have already needed to revise several of my original conjectures - as I have noted below.

The Nauvoo Baptismal File (named after Nauvoo, Illinois, where the File was created)

The 14 members of the Baptismal File in RED were the easiest to place, as seen on the right, but immediately a complication arose when I placed two presumed siblings of Joseph next to the others - which were added can be added from the Aghold St. Michael's Church of England Records and appear in BLUE.

Abraham Codde - son
Mary Twamley - son
Abraham Codde 1816 - father
Abraham Codde - cousin
Ann Codde - grandson
Ann Codde - nephew
Edward Codde - cousin
Fanny Codde - nephew
James Codde - grandson
Abraham Codde - great grandson
 
Margaret Codde - great grandson
James Codde - nephew
James Codde - cousin
John Codde 1774 - brother
John Codde - uncle
Mary Codde - nephew
Mary Codde 1776 - brother
Thomas Codde - nephew
Jane Cundle - nephew
John Cundle - nephew
 
Henrietta Flinn - cousin
Isabella Flinn - nephew
Michael Flinn - nephew
John Groves - cousin
Margaret Groves - cousin
Elizabeth Hawkins - nephew
John Hawkins - nephew
 Roger Hawkins - cousin
Thomas Hawkins - cousin
William Hawkins - cousin
 
Henrietta Hopkins - nephew
Joseph Hopkins - nephew
Mary Linnen - cousin
Elizabeth Magher - brother
Henry Pollard - cousin
Mary Pollard - cousin
Mary Porter - uncle
Elizabeth Raddock - nephew
John Raddock - nephew
Ann Ruddock (sic) - brother
 
Elizabeth Ruddock (sic) - uncle
John Ruddock - uncle
Henrietta Twamley - uncle
John Twamley - grandson
Mary Twamley - grandson
John Twamley - cousin
Mary Twamley - nephew
Peter Twamley - nephew
Rachel Twamley (1782) - brother


To revise the chart to account for inconsistencies, I consulted the Latter Day Saints IGI Web Site for birth dates, and considered the Irish Naming Pattern of naming the children after the grandparents and then after the mother and father. This is an inexact way of proceeding - as sometimes children who died young are not recorded. In the earlier Abraham-Mary Codd family we see the names John and George - without any antecedent parents after whom the son named George was obviously named - leaving more confusion. In the later Abraham-Mary family - there was no Abraham - but the names John, Mary and Ann have obvious antecedents.  Abraham (b. 1780-85) was still alive when Joseph emigrated in 1823 and so did not appear in his recording in the Nauvoo File.
Mary Twamley's birth date was (perhaps erroneously) estimated in IGI, but an entry has since turned up in the St. Michaels records as March 14th 1740...
Respecting accuracy, the John and Mary (LADY Mary Lynden) Twamley of our interest may not have been the only John and Mary Twamley in the parish, and were married in Crosspatrick on June 11th 1740, so the above entry could be a different Mary Twamley. A typical proiblem of Irish Naming.

Weare alerted here to the fact that to be named in the Nauvoo Baptismal File, one had to be deceased, as the File was made for the purposes of posthumous baptism. In fact there is, in IGI, an Abraham Codd b. 1780  with parents Abraham b.c. 1750 and Mary . This fits. I conjecture that in 1843, when the File was composed, this possible brother for Joseph was still alive - or presumed so. Joseph came to Canada in 1823, and would (possibly) have had difficulty in knowing about the status of many of his relatives who had not emigrated. I thus added Abraham Codd but in RED.


An Abraham Codd b. 1780 is found in the list of tenants at Mullahullen in 1839, living with an 80 year old mother. If this is indeed the same Abraham Codd (seems likely to me) then his mother, presumably the former Mary Twamley was born as late as 1759-60 (IGI has 1737 and 1754). This appearance of Abraham in 1839 may be why he did not appear on the Nauvoo File of 1843. But let's take this a little further. Abraham Codd of "Munachullen" married Mary Codd of the same address on March 8th 1824. They had a son, Abraham, baptized Sept. 23rd 1832 (d. June 28 1838, age 6). We also see Rachel Codd bapt. April 20 1828 with parents Abraham and Mary.

But, there are two other  Abraham Codd's to consider, both born in 1785.

 

Working  from this, we have two Abraham Codd marriages in the early 1800's - Abraham Codd m. Mary ______ in 1805 (IGI), with a daughter Rachel b. 1806. and Abraham Codd m. Elizabeth Fulham in 1812 (IGI) - with a son John b. 1817 and a daughter Catherine b. 1818 (later children were b. in Canada.)  I have elsewhere identified this Abraham as the son of John and Ann Codd b.c. 1787 (IGI) and who appears to have emigrated to Canada c. 1820 - and to have settled Con. 2 Lot 2E in Ramsay Twp. near his (presumed) brother George. I think that further conjecture here would be presumptive - except to say that Abraham Codd who m. Mary in 1806 could have been b. 1780. (and that Abraham Codd who m. Elizabeth Fulham  mother appears as Mary, suggesting that John Codd had married a Mary _________ before marrying a second wife, Ann (Groves)


Family Tree # 2 Joseph Codd's Known Uncles and Conjectural Father-In-Law

 Joseph Codd whose 49 relatives made up the Nauvoo Baptismal File was married to Mary, who has been thought  by several researchers to be a Codd as well. My impression is that none of Joseph's wife's family has been listed in the Nauvoo File - but I stand to be corrected. By the Irish Naming Pattern, George was Joseph and Mary's first son, Abraham ( after father's father) the second and Joseph (after his father) the third. The Codds  in the late 1770 and early 1800s often named their first son after the mother's father (see Abraham-Mary Tree above among many others), so, by conjecture - Mary's father was George, and if Mary was more or less the same age as Joseph, this George would have been born from 17-27 years before 1784 - between 1757 and 1767 at a very rough approximation.

Researchers for many years have published a list of at least some of the family of  George Codd b.c. 1732 and Rachel Twamley b.c. 1738 who were married at St., Michael's in 1764 (see Church Records). George (1732) was Abraham's brother, and Rachel was Mary Twamley's sister - so they were Joseph Codd's aunt and uncle - but are not named in the Nauvoo File. Could they have been alive when Joseph emigrated in 1823? They would gave been in their nineties.

Nor do they appear after their marriage as parents in the Aghold records. But researchers have, for years, listed their family (Joseph's cousins) as Jane Codd b. 1765, George Codd b. 1767, John Codd b. 1769, Abraham Codd b. 1770 and Alexander Codd b. 1771- all born in Boley Townland. This has long been considered a fact - and appears in IGI but not in known Church records.

Other researchers have said there were five boys in the George Codd- Rachel Twamley family and indeed, researcher Eileen Jackson placed Thomas Codd b. 1773 as the fifth son - based,  perhaps, on Thomas and his wife Elizabeth's naming their first son George and their first daughter Rachel.
 

So, we have George Codd b. 1767 who could have had a daughter Mary (but no birth record match abd no marriage record for George) so the conjecture is weakened. On the other hand, when one culls the Aghold records again, there are no other recorded births found from 1780 forward (when he was 17) which list a George Codd as the father.

 The only Mary Codd during this period in either the Aghold records or IGI was Mary Codd b. Dec. 26th 1761 to John and Mary (Singleton) Codd - so the conjecture that Mary was a Codd is not supported by existing evidence. We shall let it stand for now, however, pending further evidence. There was a Mary Codd born to William and Catherine Codd in 1795, but the names William or Catherine do not appear among Joseph abd Mary's children.



Having placed 14 relatives rather firmly in Joseph Codd's family, we now turn to the 17 relatives he listed his relationship with as "nephew" - his uncles and aunts.

Abraham Codde - cousin
Ann Codde - nephew
Edward Codde - cousin
Fanny Codde - nephew
James Codde - nephew
James Codde - cousin
John Codde - uncle
Mary Codde - nephew
Thomas Codde - nephew
Jane Cundle - nephew
John Cundle - nephew
  Henrietta Flinn - cousin
Isabella Flinn - nephew
Michael Flinn - nephew
John Groves - cousin
Margaret Groves - cousin
Elizabeth Hawkins - nephew
John Hawkins - nephew
Roger Hawkins - cousin
Thomas Hawkins - cousin
William Hawkins - cousin
 Henrietta Hopkins - nephew
Joseph Hopkins - nephew
Mary Linnen - cousin
Henry Pollard - cousin
Mary Pollard - cousin
Mary Porter - uncle
Elizabeth Raddock - nephew
John Raddock - nephew
Elizabeth Ruddock (sic) - uncle
John Ruddock - uncle
Henrietta Twamley - uncle
John Twamley - cousin
Mary Twamley - nephew
Peter Twamley - nephew

Ann Codde, Fanny Codde, James Codde and  Mary Codd
are easy placements. Ann was baptized April 28th 1745, daughter of James and Ann. Fanny (Frances) does not appear in Church Records, but was known from other records (IGI) to be the daughter of James and Ann about 1739. James was baptized Jan. 4th  1740 at Aghold, followed by a second James on Aug. 10th 1751. It can be assumed that the first James died young (no record of burial) and that the second died or more likely moved away from Aghold as there us no church record of his death or marriage there.

The Mary Codd of the Nauvoo File appears in the IGI records as a daughter of James and Ann b. 1745, but church records have her bapt. Feb. 2 1728.



 IGI, has a John Codd b.c. 1743 in this family - but he is not seen in the Church records or in the Nauvoo File. Was there really a John in this family? If there were it would prove the existance of two Codd lines at Aghold. See my Page on the Codds of Aghold for details. I am calling this an error, as it seems more likely that John Codd b. 1727 who m. Mary Singleton at Aghold in 1752 (not necessarily at Aghold, as there is no record of JAMES marriage there either) was a son of JAMES. One researcher has suggested that perhaps the birth of JANE in 1742 has been mistakenly transferred to become JOHN in 1743. Could this be?

Thomas Codd, b.c. 1751 to James and Ann ( IGI - no Church Record) is held, by most researchers to have married Elizabeth Twamley, the third daughter of John Twamley and Mary Lyndon. As will be seen below, however, IGI records Elizabeth Twamley as marrying John Cundle - possibly the same John Cundle as family records have as marrying Elizabeth Codd on May 24 1754. In the face of having a definite date for the latter marriage, even though the Cundle-Twamley marriage (see below) appears on IGI - it may not be correct.

Jane Codd was baptized March 6th 1742 (parents James and Ann) and married John Cundle ( otherwise spelled Condoll), of Hacketstown Union April 1860.




 The notation that JANE was the daughter of JAMES rather than JAMES and ANN(E) may suggest that ANN(E) had died by this time - but there us no record of her death at Aghold.  Hard to know what to conclude here IGI records John Cundle b. 1740 m. Jane Twamley b. 1744 in 1764. Either marriage could have resulted in the Nauvoo entries Jane Cundle - nephew and John Cundle - nephew. Did the same John Cundle m. Jane Codd and Jane Twamley?

Elizabeth Codd was baptized February 20th 1733 and married John Hawkins on May 24th 1754. It has been confirmed by relatives that they had Roger , Thomas, and William Hawkins as children while living at Brusselstown Hill in Kiktegan Parish to the north, and that perhaps Roger and definitely Thomas emigrated to Canada. Thomas Hawkins died shortly after arriving, leaving a son, who founded Port Albert on Lake Huron, right next to East Wawanosh where many of the Codd second generation settlers in Canada ended up. A Roger Hawkins b. 1791 appears to have turned up at Bowesville, near Bytown married to Eleanor Freeman, niece of Capt. William John Freeman who cane to Bowesville in 1832 bringing his daughter Sarah and her husband, Thomas Codd.  Can we trace this Thomas Codd to the JAMES CODD family of Aghold. I think we can!

IGI records a marriage between John Hawkins and Elizabeth Twamley (b.c. 1742) in 1762. IGI is not always right. I begin to be suspicious of the above two IGI records. Are they based on fact (we don't know) or speculation? I wish we could clear this up. Other research suggests Elizabeth Twamley from the family of John and Mary Lyndon m. Thomas Codd, son of James and Ann - but, while IGI record Thomas b. 1751, son of James & Ann, and Elizabeth Twamley b.c. 1742, daughter of John and Mary, there is no record of their marriage. At the present time we can only guess what tge truth is here, but our guesses are somewhat educated.

 

THOMAS CODD of Bowesville CONJECTURE: When JAMES CODD died in February 1763 and was buried at St. Michaels in Aghold, he had a son JAMES who was 12 years old (b. 1751) and a son Thomas who was b. between 1747 and 1751 (he may have been a twin to JAMES). Neither of these teenagers are seen after birth in the Aghold records. JAMES daughter, Elizabeth (Hawkins) was then 30 and living in Brusselstown, north of Aghold in Kiltegan Parish. His younger daughter, MARY CUNDLE (or CONDOLL), b. 1742, was 21, and probably living in her husband's town of origin, Hackettstown bear Kiltegan as well. It is an easy conjecture to suggest tgat JAMES abd THOMAS webt to live with one of their sisters in the Hackettstown area, where one of them probably grabdfathered THOMAS CODD b. 1791.


JOSEPH CODD lists cousins ABRAHAM CODD and EDWARD CODD and JAMES CODD (listed right under his uncle JAMES CODD), HENRY and MARY POLLARD. The Pollard family was esconced at Hackettstown, where a HENRY was part of the militia during the Rebellion of 1798. It us possible that all or some of these cousins, abd THOMAS b. 1791 came from the even tua lfamilies of either JAMES or THOMAS CODD at Hacketttwon.


Henrietta Twamley
(b.c. 1839 IGI), daughter of John and Mary Twamley, married Joseph Hopkins (of nearby Stradnakelly) on April 8th 1760 at St. Michael's. Since Joseph Codd identified himself as her nephew, she was undoubtedly another daughter of John Twamley, his known grandfather. The St. Michaels church record lists her parents as "John and Mary Twamley of Mullahullen" The Hopkins family were known to be among the first supporters of Wesleyan Methodism in the Wicklow area around 1745.

While unmentioned in the Nauvoo Baptismal File, t
he same St. Michael's Records also showed that in  1762" Jane Twamley, daughter of the late John Twamley of Mullahullen" married Edward Chamney. Next generation members of this family would marry into the family of George Code of Beckwith in later generations - and were ancestors of Canadian novelist Alice Munro. Was this Jane Twamley's father the same John Twamley or was there another at the time? In fact, it seems there was. A John Twamley m. Mary ___________ c. 1734, with a son, John Twamley b. 1736. While Jane Twamley Chamney may have, in reality, been the daughter of John Twamley who married Lady Mary Lyndon, the Nauvoo File suggests otherwise, and that the Jane from this marriage, as seen above, married John Hawkins.

Peter Twamley is seen in the Nauvoo File for the first time as a son of John and Mary Twamley. The Mary Twamley listed in the Nauvoo File would likely be Peter Twamley's wife, and could not have been an unmarried sister, as his sister, Mary was, in fact, Joseph Codd's mother. Since there are no other Twamley parents listed in the File, John Twamley, listed as a cousin, was the son of Peter and Mary. LDS records confirm that Peter Twamley, b.c. 1756, married Mary  ______ b.c. 1755 in 1774 and that John Twamley, their son, was born in 1778-1779.

Elizabeth and John Raddock are harder to place, but since there was already an Elizabeth Codd and an Elizabeth Twamley, and since Joseph lists a sister as Ann Ruddock, it logically appears likely that these were her unnamed husband's parents, and that Elizabeth Ruddock and John Ruddock were children of his sister Ann. Likewise, IGI reports a marriage between Mary Codd and a Mr. Porter in 1797 - accounting for Joseph listing himself as uncle to Mary Porter, and a marriage between Rachel Codd and a Mr. Twamley at Aghold in 1803 - accounting (perhaps) for niece Henrietta Twamley in the Nauvoo File.

NOTE: The above assumption is weakened, however, by the fact that the only Henrietta Twamley in the IGI records born around this time was the 20 May 1801 birth of Henrietta to Peter and Henrietta Twamley. I make this note, not wanting to cast doubt unnecessarily on the Latter Day Saints (IGI) records, which are generally seen as the gold standard, but because this and some of the entries below have a conjectural flavour to them - and one is left to wonder whether some of the records have been rendered as guesses by researchers who. like myself, have considered the Nauvoo File a gold mine - and have been overly tempted to guess certain connections.

Who Was Henrietta Codd?

The most important placement, if we wish to know more of family connections, could be Isabella Flinn,  Michael Flinn, and Henrietta Flinn. But perhaps not! IGI lists a Michael Flynn as christened at Aghold in 1744, and as marrying Isabella Twamley (b. 1748) in 1768. Henrietta, would, logically, as a cousin of Joseph's, be their daughter.

But, having recorded that, the plot thickens...
Henrietta Flinn would have probably been born in the 1770's.

But we also know that Joseph Codd acquired land in Kitley Twp. from one John Flinn who arrived in Canada in 1820 and who married Henrietta Alexandra Codd in Perth, Ontario in 1823. The Marriage Records apparently substantiate that Henrietta's parents were George Codd and Mary Blackburn - and family say this couple met on the ship Brock coming to Canada in 1820 -  but - George and Mary had a son in Wicklow, James Codd who was baptized at St. Michael's December 17th 1826 - and Kitley Census Records indicate that George and Mary arrived in 1832. It is unlikely, unless George came to Canada and returned to Ireland, that it was he who travelled on the Brock in 1820.

Could the Henrietta Flinn from the Nauvoo File be the same one who married John Flinn. Someone has found her name in records unknown to me but known to exist, as born in Wicklow in 1803 - so she was 17 and unmarried when she came to Canada in 1820. She would not have come alone - so with whom did she emigrate? With Joseph and Mary? Not according to the family story - or records which suggest that they came in 1824 - after she was already married in Canada. She had died before Joseph left Kitley - and John Flinn was still alive at the time. Were Michael and Isabella Flinn  John's parents? John and Henrietta Flinn had children Edward, Henrietta, Jane, John, Thomas and William (perhaps not in that order). The name George is notably absent, as are Michael and Isabella - but perhaps the list of children is incomplete - as often occurred when children died young. While the Henrietta who came to Canada remains a mystery at this tim - the surname Flinn or Flynn indicates that John Flinn was likely family.






Let's just speculate here for the fun of it. The purchase of land in Kitley  Joseph Codd from John Flinn. Joseph lists himself as Isabella and Michael Flinn's nephew. There is no Isabella Codd, it would seem, in St. Michael's records.

Is Henrietta Codd Flinn  a cousin of Joseph Codd.

 

If so, five possibilities remain, given the available information.


1. Related through Henrietta - her father and Joseph's father, Abraham are brothers.
2. Related through Henrietta - her father and Mary's father (? George) are brothers.
3. Related through  John - his mother and Joseph's father, Abraham are brothers.
4. Related through  John - his mother and Mary's father, (? George) are brothers.
5.) They are "cousins" but not first cousins, and have a more distant family tie.

Such are the mysteries of insufficient information - but -

1.) None of Abraham's brothers are young enough to have had a daughter in 1803.
2.) George( b. 1767)'s brothers were Abraham, John, Alexander - and very probably Thomas.
     Thomas' family is well known and emigrated with him in 1820. If Henrietta Codd
      was Joseph's first cousin, she had to be the daughter of either John, Abraham or
      Alexander. Only John has possible known offspring in the period in question recorded at St.
      Michael's. If others had offspring, they were recorded elsewhere.
3.) George Codd (b/c. 1784) and Mary Blackburn b. 1783 have been listed by some as
     Henrietta's parents - even though their names are not perpetuated among her children. Did she list 
      them as her parents when she married John Flinn in Perth  in 1823? If we were to know this was so it
      would help greatly.
     Other listings don't include her in George and Mary's family. Their baptized children
      in the St., Michael's records include - George b. 1812, Abraham b. 1819. William b.
     1821 and James b. 1826 - but if there is a Henrietta b. 1803, found elsewhere (which
      makes perfect sense for this period in history) there could have been others between
     1803 and 1812.
Few conclusions are available here at this time.

I would like to invite those who are researching this line to supply what information they have or to  look up the Perth, Ontario  Marriage Record of Henrietta Codd, so that this mystery can be put to bed. My best guess is that both George Codd (Mary Blackburn) and Mary Codd (Joseph Codd) were offspring of  George Codd (b. 1767)(? wife Rachel) - that George b. 1784 was the firstborn - and named after his grandfather, George b. 1732. This does not quite place Henrietta - not at this stage!



While this Tree has become more complex, only a few of the connections - the dotted lines - are tentative - and require checking. Open questions:

1.) Where does Joseph's wife Mary Codd fit in to the Codd family - or does she?
2.) Where does Henrietta Codd (m. John Flinn) fit in to the family?
3.) How are Michael and Isabella Flinn, and Henrietta Flinn related to John Flinn?
4.) One Codd uncle John Codd was left out. Why?

The Family of John Codd (c. 1728 - ?)

John Codd b. 1728 is notable by his absence from the Nauvoo File.  John was either the oldest or second oldest in the James Codd Family - born in 1727 or 1828  - or was he?  Researcher Zoe Mollot-Code suggests that John may not have been a son of James and Ann - and his being left out of the Nauvoo File is perhaps support for this notion. DNA evidence is quite early at this stage - but is beginning to point to two strains which are different. Were there two Codd branches at Aghold around 1700 not just one? I am opting to position John's family as a separate branch from those we have been concentrating on to date.

We don't know Joseph Codd the creator of the Nauvoo File's father Abraham Codd's birth date (no church record, assumed by IGI to be 1737, 1750 or even 1754) - but, as his grandfather was Abraham - he should have been (by the Irish Naming Pattern) either the first or second son. But some IGI records suggest a birth date as late as 1750. Further, there is a suggestion that either Abraham was the oldest son and had two families, each with a wife named Mary - or that there were two Abraham Codds in the early 1700's. The earliest birth date 1737 for Abraham, however, still works for being Joseph's father, as he would have been 47 in 1784 when Joseph was born.  This fact remaining unknown may be of great importance, as the land utilized by the Codd family was leased, and the leases seemingly passed down within one family branch. This is murky territory for me, as I was quite unable to discern the gist of Eileen Jackson's interpretations of the leases at Munahullen in 1808 and 1830. We will return to this when I extend the Tree another generation below.




This tree now contains most  of the Codd names from the more public St. Michael's Church Records prior to 1790 and some of the records from the 1790's when records gradually became more sparse. In addition to placing all 17 of Joseph's uncles and aunts (some with a little reservation) it has also provided a place to add 6 nieces and nephews - Mary Porter as a daughter of his sister Mary, Elizabeth and John Ruddock as children of his sister Ann, Roger, Thomas and William Hawkins as children of John Hawkins - and either Elizabeth Codd (more likely) or Elizabeth Twamley (less likely but supported by IGI), and Henrietta Flinn as the daughter of Isabella Twamley and Michael Flinn (although there are no matches in the 1700's for Henrietta Flinn in IGI.)

The entry for John Codde, which indicates that Joseph was his uncle suggests but does not confirm that Joseph's brother John married and had a son John. I use the term suggests, because Joseph quite evidently had an (unlisted) brother Abraham as well (see above) and this deceased John Codde could have been his son.

Having placed 41 of the 49 Nauvoo File entries, some with noted reservations, this makes it easier to deal with Codd names from the period which have so far eluded placement - and harder to deal with the last 8 (see below).


Codds Not Represented on Family Tree #4

The remaining Codds who bore children in the 1770's may be harder to place in Family Tree #4 at this time. The difficulty here is that we already have a John-Mary parent couple, John b. 1828. He cannot have been having children in 1806, so I have conjectured that this  John was not the same one. Abraham's birth date (1785) eliminates  John (b. 1774), brother of Joseph as the father, but perhaps not John (b. 1769) son of  George and Rachel. The pairing of John and Mary as parents of children born 21 years apart with no other children attributed to them from the records in the interim is frankly troubling. One must consider two John Codd-Mary _______ marriages as possible. One possibility is that that Abraham b. 1785 was the son of John b. May 1758 to Abraham and Mary, and that John b. 1806 was the son of Joseph's' brother John b. 1774. We shall return to this possibility below.


Sorting Out Two Thomas-Elizabeth Codd marriages

We also have another Thomas-Elizabeth couple m. 1792 (IGI) with the birth of a son Thomas 8 November 1793 - which predates the 1800 marriage of Thomas Codd (1773) and Elizabeth Twamley (1774). This  double Thomas-Elizabeth pairing with children being born simultaneously makers attributing them very awkward, with baptism of two children - Richard and James within three weeks in 1803.

Either they were twins baptized at different times (unlikely) - or perhaps they were from different families. The  Thomas-Elizabeth couple, who married in 1792 could have been the so-far elusive Thomas, son of James and Ann b.c. 1751 and Elizabeth Twamley b. c. 1756 of John Twamley and Mary Lyndon - but this would make Thomas 34 and Elizabeth 36 when they married - totally outside the marriage-at-an-early-age pattern of the times.

The Thomas who married in 1792 could also have been the 1758 son of John Codd and Mary Singleton. A Thomas Codd married Ann ________  in 1784 and had a son Abraham in 1785 (we also see what is probably a later Thomas-Ann marriage which gave rise to William in 1819, Rachel in 1821, John in 1824 - which, by dates, would probably have been the Thomas born to Thomas and Elizabeth in 1793).

The Elizabeth b. 1817 may have been a daughter of the Thomas (b. 1773) and Elizabeth Twamley (m. 1800) who may have died young (no record of her in Canada). This would explain the absence of an Elizabeth named after her mother in this family. Either James or Richard could also have been born to Thomas (1773) and Elizabeth (1774) in 1803. If James was their son and died young (they later had a son, James in Canada in 1821) this could help to place Elizabeth (1774) as the daughter of James Twamley Jr. - although there is no known record of her birth as such. Thomas-Elizabeth m.1800 had a later son Richard, so if this son, in 1803 was theirs, he probably died young, and his name was given to later Richard.

I deal with this thoroughly on my Codds of Aghold Page - where we find that there may have even been three Thomas-Elizabeth pairings at Aghold. My latter explanation makes better sense - but the above could be true.



The Twamley family figures strongly in the Codd history. my ancestor, Thomas Codd (1773) was said to have "married the boss's daughter"- and indeed, unlike the Codds who rented land, the Twamley family were like super-renters who, in turn, rented land to smaller lesees during this period. what I know of them will be presented on a TWAMLEY PAGE. My best guess about THOMAS-ELIZABETH m. 1792 is that this Thomas was the son of Thomas b. 1758, and the grandson of John b. 1727-8.

The Imperative To Move On

If one were to survey the Tithe Allotments of the early 1880's, one would see that from all appearances, this one family was scratching out a living on not more than 20 acres in total - and so, as the family grew, the necessity of finding other places to farm which would support a larger number of people was looming. Those families who seem to disappear from the records were, perhaps moving on to farm other available areas. I mention this, because Joseph's familiarity with his family at the time of his leaving Aghold about 1824, was perhaps limited to the family directly living at Aghold - with some of the family spreading out to nearby Townlands where farms were still available.

The complete absence of members of John Codd's family on the Nauvoo Baptismal List makes me think that this family moved on in the early years of the 19th century or shortly before - with the most likely place of their relocation being Ballingate, between Carnew and Bunclody. In the early 18th century, we see Codds from Aghold marrying other Codds from Carnew - and vice versa. One Thomas Codd was already located at Ballingate at the time of the Rebellion of 1798 (he claimed damages) and died there in September 1840. Fitzwilliam records indicate that Thomas of Ballingate was a subtenant of Henry Braddell Esq. in 1827 - was 60 years of age (thus born.in 1767) and that his wife was also born in the same year - and that they had 1 male and 3 female relives in their home in 1827. Beside him we see son, William b.c. 1800 with wife b.c. 1801 and two male and two female relatives  We also see in the early Carnew records after the Rebellion, William Codd married to Henrietta, living in Ballingate, having a son Thomas christened in Aghold in 1808. But we also have William b.c. 1796 who m. Mary Watchorn and had 2 boys and three girls by 1827 - which fits perfectly - and ties William to his father Thomas.

To see the Codds recorded at Carnew go HERE.

Conjecture: Joseph Codd b. 1796-7 who m. Rachel Codd b. 1798 from Aghold was called "Uncle Joe" (she was also called "Aunt Rachel") by John Codd (b.c. 1819 father Thomas) in letters which passed between Ireland and Canada in 1870. An "Uncle William" is also mentioned in respect to his death in 1865 (none is seen in the Aghold or Carnew records). This is consistent with this proposed family - but John's family also has a Henry as an uncle. We don't see a Henry Codd at Carnew, but we do see a Henry b. 1825 to William Codd and Margaret Watchhorn (2nd son) and as well we see a Henry Watchorn b. 1802 - so there was likely a Henry Watchorn b.c. 1780 who was Margaret and Henry's father. Could one of these men have been seen as an "uncle"? At a stretch - yes! Would Thomas of Ballingate have had a son, Thomas who could have been John's father? Yes. The absense of a birth record could be explained by the records at Carnew being destroyed during the Rebellion of 1798 - and a Thomas would have been born by then. This complex "riddle" as to who was the father of John b. 1819 of Munahullen has another possible solution - which is explored in detail on the Codds of Aghold Page.

The Remaining Names on the Nauvoo Baptismal File

We are now down to 8 names of the 49 from the Baptismal File. Some will be quite difficult to place as the surnames, other than Groves are largely unfamiliar.

Abraham Codde - cousin
Edward Codde - cousin
James Codde - cousin
John Groves - cousin
Margaret Groves - cousin
Mary Linnen - cousin
Henry Pollard - cousin
Mary Pollard - cousin


John and Margaret Groves ( I have devoted an entire GROVES PAGE to this family)

Who were John and Margaret Groves? Joseph Codd/Coad lived in Kitley Twp. in a Codd/Coad farming enclave in the late 1830's and early 1840's. Richard Codd/Coad b. 1812, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Codd/Coad in Lanark Twp., married Mary Jane James (daughter of Thomas James 1787-1868 and his wife Elizabeth Groves - whose parents were John and Margaret Groves - from the same Aghold neighborhood in Wicklow where the Codds farmed. How could it be other than Margaret had been a Codd. Was this "cousin" related to Joseph or to Mary - or perhaps both? There is, however, no IGI record of a Margaret Codd.

It was not a coincidence, then, that George Code (son of George and Mary Blackburn) of this enclave took in the widow Hunt who lived nearby when her husband passed away - as she too had been a Groves from Aghold. The possible identity of  George Codd and Mary Blackburn from Aghowle Upper Townland is discussed fully on the GROVES PAGE.)

Henry and Mary Pollard

One might expect to find the same kind of "cousin" relationship with another married couple - and might find the connection in Kitley Twp. - as Joseph had to have a source of information about his relative in order to put them on the list. I have no idea who the Pollards were, but chances are that Mary Pollard was a Codd. Perhaps the same logic applies to Mary Linnen. I suspect that these were all Aghold Codds whose descendants had emigrated to Kitley - where Joseph would have known them. IGI has a Henry Pollard b. 1800 in Wicklow, but his marriage record is a 1825 marriage to one Susan Morris. This "cousin" remains an unknown. There is also a Henry Pollard in the Hackettstown Militia at the time of the Rebellion of 1798 as well as a number of Codd families livng there at the time.

Edward, Abraham and James Codd(e)

From a Memorial placed at St. Michael's, commemorating Edward Codd (1762-1828, sons Edward b. 1823 and George b. 1929) and either a sister (or sister-in-law) - Ann Groves (1779-1834) we can conjecture still another Codd-Groves marriage. I cannot place any of the remaining Codds in actual families - but again chances are that descendants of these Codds had found their way to Kitley Twp. as well, carrying news of their forebears passing. Were these "cousins" perhaps Mary Codd's family? IGI does not have any Edward Codds of this era. Family records are also missing any Edwards, Abrahams or James which would be obvious fits.

The closest Edward is Edward Codd christened 27 Sept. 1829, son of James and Alice. We can look, however, to the already identified Codd uncles - the sons of James (1710-1763) and Ann - whose families, if they had families, have not been identified. James Codd, christened Aug. 10th 1751, has not been seen to have married - but this would have occurred after 1768, when he was 17. We do see a James and wife Frances (Fanny) with offspring Rachel in 1783 and John in 1792 - but these have been so far attributed to the James b. 1764 to John Codd and Mary Astleford.

We have no evidence that James b. 1751 had a family. Likewise we do not have other than anecdotal evidence that James' brother Thomas b. 1751 (rumoured to have married Elizabeth Twamley)  or another brother John b. 1743 had a family either. It seems logical, however, to conclude that the "missing" Edward, Abraham and James were sons of either John b. 1743. James 1751 or Thomas 1751 - and thus, cousins of Joseph.

The John Codd Family Of Aghold who had children in the 1785-1800 era

One family which has not  been added to the Family Tree until now is the family of John Codd and his wife Ann ________ who were raising children at Aghold - in all likelihood from the late 1780s until the turn of the century. There were (at least) two known John Codds who might have headed up this family - Joseph's brother -  John b. 1774 and John Codd, b. 1769, the second son of George Codd and Rachel Twamley. But John b. 1774 would seem to be eliminated as a candidate to be this John Codd on account of age. Born in 1774, he could hardly (at age 13) have been the father of John Codd b. 1787, the oldest known son in this family.

The two Codd Aghold Leases for 1808 stipulated that the lease would be for the natural life of Nicholas Codd (b. 1795), third son of John Code, and another for Joseph, son of Abraham. While it makes sense that the two leaseholders could well have been brothers - it was not necessarily this way. The "Joseph, son of Abraham" seems evidently to be our Joseph of the Nauvoo File - while Nicholas, the third son of John and Ann, did have a brother who was born about 1800 (identified in the lease as 8 years old in 1808) and whom I believe to be the George Code who emigrated to Beckwith Twp. in 1822.

A notation on the leases by Eileen Jackson was that "Rachel Codd held the lease for George, age 8, in 1808."
This would appear most likely to be George b.c. 1797 - son of John - or, much less likely, George b. 1800 son of Thomas.  This would then cause a search for sons number one and two - whom I believe to have been John Codd (1787-1867) who came to Canada in 1817, and eventually settled at Innisville. The other son, would likely have been Thomas Codd (1789 - ) for whom there is some evidence of coming to Canada as well, or Abraham Codd b.c. 1785,  who evidently moved to Ramsay Twp. in the same period. Family legend has four brothers - John, Thomas, Abraham and George setting out for Canada about 1817 - along with a cousin James Codd - who has not been located in Canada to this date.

 Whichever John Codd was married to Ann ________ and was raising children in the late 80's and throughout the 90's - the other was likely the family legend, Captain John Codd who was known to have been involved in the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 and who died in St. Helena while guarding him there. That story appears HERE.



 
Once the John Codd (Ann) family is pieced together in this way, it agrees in structure with what one would expect. I could not decide where to place Abraham as I have no birth dates for him (I do have his marriage recorded with Elizabeth Fulham as 1812 in IGI), so I put him at the beginning. On closer look, probably John could be the first son in such a family. John Codd (Mary Ann Nugent) has never seemed to gravitate in people's minds to this family, but when you look at it as a whole picture, he could hardly be otherwise. The family story in John's household was that "a Mr. Twamley, while working  as a carriageman at an estate, met Lady Lyndon, and they were smitten - and became the grandparents of the four Codd brothers who set out for Canada." The four brothers, who set out at various times, meeting up between 1820 and 1822, would be Abraham (who settled in Ramsay Twp. near George, George who settled in Beckwith Twp. John who settled in a number of places - perhaps Beckwith, Lanark and finally Drummond near Innisville, and (perhaps) Thomas, for whom there is evidence of  a sort - and who apparently moved on to Western Ontario.

As suggested above, this story leans away from John Codd b. 1774, brother of Joseph, as the father of this family. While this John (1774) has both a direct connection with the Twamley-Lyndon story and, while he comes from (perhaps) the oldest son of James, his family might therefore be entitled to the lease. Nicholas would appear to have stayed on the family farm in Aghold, but disappears from the records after his birth.

Rachel
, (whom I have conjectured as being from this family, but for whom there is no birth record (understandable as she was born the year of the Rebellion, but the conjectural evidence of her recorded marriage in 1822 to Joseph Codd of Carnew (see North Elmsley Codes) went with her husband Joseph to North Elmsley in 1849. As you will see, if you take the time to check, the Irish Naming Pattern as seen in the descendant families is richly supportive of this configuration as a family - even though the Irish records for this period have largely gone missing - or are somewhat hard to access.

I could go on, but there needs to be a stopping point - a place to let others pick at this and correct it where it is needed, and to add the evidence you have collected. Please let me know what you know - I mean what you know for sure - and I will be happy to post it with the rest.

The Codds of Aghold would not stay put in Lanark and Kitley. Many of the second generation began to move further West in the late 1840's and early 1850's. For that story CLICK HERE.

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More Questions Than Answers

This, of course, is not the whole story. I have not ventured into the identify or the origin of the plethora of Codd families who were having babies at Aghold in the years between 1800 and 1830. Because of the dearth of easily accessible records of the previous years surrounding the Rebellion, it's hard to know who their parents were. The Codds spread out to Upper and Lower Aghold Townland, and to Munny Townland, and to Tullow. And, almost 200 years later, some of them are still there.

Records following the family of  George Codd b. 1767 (and his wife ? Rachel b. 1758) are notably absent, and if located would probably explain the presence of George Codd b. 1784 (or later) who married Mary Blackburn and whose children were baptized at St. Michael's before he left for Canada. Go to the Groves page for more on George.

Records following the family of his brother, Abraham b. 1770, are equally sparse or nonexistent - and there is no record at all of what happened to Alexander b. 1771. And what of  John Codd of the same family, born in 1769. Was he the family legend, Captain John Codd? Interestingly enough, he was born almost exactly at the same time as Napoleon. Did he have a son, John, as perhaps suggested by the Nauvoo File? There is at least one Codd researcher currently working on this mystery. For reasons I have given above, I now favour John Codd, b. 1774 as Captain Codd.

Was John Codd b. 1769. brother of  Jane (1765), George (1767) Abraham (1770) Alexander (1771) and Thomas (1773), married to Mary and the father of Abraham (1785) and John (1806)? This wide splaying of offspring would be consistent with the life of a sea Captain who spent the majority of his life at sea. But we can only speculate.
And I have already done so above!


And who was Sarah Codd b. 1778 or perhaps later - who came to Canada (Beckwith Twp.) as the wife of William Dowdall (Beckwith Twp. Con 12 Lot 3)? There is no record of a Sarah being born in Aghold during this period - but being located next to George Code, one would conjecture that she was an aunt. And who was Rachel Codd b.c. 1794 - who came to Ramsay Twp. at the same time (1822) as the wife of Richard Evans?

Another question which still rests on my mind is "What happened to Thomas Codd of James and Ann's family who, by family reports, married Elizabeth Twamley?" There is no record of their marriage at Aghold - but we likely do see their children. Did they move to Carnew and Ballingate Townland? Or were the Ballingate Codds the Thomas b. 1758, son of John and Mary? I have conjectured that they were not.

An early Codd to come to Canada was Thomas Codd who married Elizabeth Bailey (or Bayley) in closely nearby Bunclody in 1808 and came out to Drummond Twp. Since there were members of the Aghold family in that area at the time, was Thomas more closely linked than history - and geography would have it? The same might be said of John Codd b. 1792 of the next parish in Wexford and who married Elizabeth Power(s) in 1809 - and also came to Drummond Con. 19 Lot 4SW in 1816 on the ship John alongside several families with surnames commonly seen in Aghold (see main page for list ).

Finally, the mystery continues for me as to the parentage of Elizabeth Twamley, (1774-1839) wife of Thomas Codd (later Coad) (b. 1774) often referred to as Lady Twamley. Quite evidently she was a Twamley from the line emanating from the marriage of John Twamley and Lady Mary Lyndon. But who was her father? Peter Twamley, as the Nauvoo File would suggest? If so, why wasn't there a Peter among her children? For this very reason, I lean towards her being the daughter of James Twamley Jr.

But this is what keeps us interested, isn't  it?



Searching Further Afoot Beyond Aghold



It becomes apparent, as all known names from Aghold Parish are added to the Codd Family Tree, that there are holes in the information. We know that the record keeping was in disarray during the Rebellion of 1798. Records which were transferred to Tullowphelim during that period have been researched by some researchers, but are not seen among those which are readily available. But that's not the whole story either. Some of these families  moved  on - or moved on and later returned - and thus  we see families with 1-2 children - when we know that  9 or 10 was the norm.  The Carlow area seen in the map on the right  is fertile ground for further research - and has already yielded a few names  which otherwise would have been lost.

Another source of information, tantalizing, but frustrating at the same time, came in the form of an immgration sign-up list of residents of  Wexford/ Carlow of 1817 which lists  710 residents, certainly many from Aghold, including my  Thomas Codd/Elizabeth Twamley forebears, who had signed on to leave for Canada the following spring. We also see on this list, for example a Thomas Ruddock, who, one might guess was the husband of Joseph Codd's sister Ann Codd. While one picks up titbits of information from many sources, it is really the comparision of one against the other which unravels the many remaining mysteries about out ancestors. I found the Nauvoo Baptismal File the best of the lot, incomplete as it was.



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